Are there strategical differences between two-man and four-man bobsled?


I think you need to distinguish two separate attributes here: First, there are team sports, meaning multiple individuals work together, vs. individual sports. And second, there are sports where the participants react to each others' actions vs. sports where the participants' performances are each measured on some objective scale and the best performer wins.

As you pointed out, there are many team sports, in my sense, involving more than one team: track relays, swim relays, ski relays, team golf, team gymnastics, etc. You can basically take any individual sport and make a team sport like this out of it. But those are all sports where each performance is measured separately.

But what your question was really aiming at, I think, is that there are apparently very few "mutually reactive" sports involving more than two parties. This applies to both team sports and individual sports. For example, individual sports such as tennis are normally played between two parties as...

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Bobsleigh or bobsled is a winter sport in which teams of two or four teammates make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sled. The timed runs are combined to calculate the final score.

The various types of sleds came several years before the first tracks were built in St. Moritz, Switzerland, where the original bobsleds were adapted upsized luge/skeleton sleds designed by the adventurously wealthy to carry passengers. All three types were adapted from boys' delivery sleds and toboggans.

Competition naturally followed, and to protect the working class and rich visitors in the streets and byways of St Moritz, bobsledding was eventually banned from the public highway. In the winter of 1903/1904 the Badrutt family, owners of the historic Kulm Hotel and the Palace Hotel, allowed Emil Thoma to organise the construction of the first familiarly configured 'half-pipe' track in the Kulm Hotel Park, ending in the village of Cresta. It has...

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I Introduction


, winter sport in which teams of two or four steer a sled down an ice-covered track, reaching speeds of more than 135 km/h (84 mph). The fastest sled wins, often by mere hundredths of a second. The sport s name comes from its early days, when sledders bobbed their bodies back and forth on straightaways to help the sled along. Bobbing was never proved to work and was soon discontinued, but it remained a part of the sport s name.

II Strategy and Technique

The most critical part of a bobsled run is its start. Teams focus on explosive starts because momentum at that point strongly affects the sled s speed throughout the course. Saving one-tenth of a second during the start often translates to saving one-third of a second on the run as a whole.

To set the bobsled in motion, team members sprint while pushing the sled forward. They run for about 50 m (164 ft) and then leap into the sled just before the...

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The four-man bobsleigh competition at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, was held at the Whistler Sliding Centre in Whistler, British Columbia, on 26–27 February.[1] The German team of...

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Bobsledding has evolved tremendously since early daredevils negotiated rickety, modified wooden sleds down icy runs in Europe. The mode of this transport is the bobsled, or as it is referred to outside of the US and Canada, the bobsleigh. The sport became popular in the mid 1800s with the first half pipe track built in St. Moritz, Switzerland, by Caspar Badrutt, owner of the Krup Hotel. Early aficionados rigged their own designs using wood delivery sleds and adding steering mechanisms, but it is American Stephen Whitney who is credited with the invention of the modern design, which bolts two sleds into one.

The vehicle got its name from the bobbing action crews made to increase the sled’s speed down the track. As the sport literally got faster, reaching speeds of up to 90 miles per hour (144 km/h), the sleds had to get stronger and more streamlined. It was this modern design that allowed them to reach these higher speeds.

The modern device is typically made with a...

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Men's bobsled has been on the Winter Games program since the first Winter Olympics in 1924, a women's event was only added in 2002.

Events for 2014

There are three Bobsleigh events at the Winter Olympics, two for men and one for women:

Two-man, Two woman and Four-man


in 1928, the bob sled event was a five-man competition. All other years there have been a 4-man event. America's bobsleigh team, led by Billy Fiske, won the gold at the 1932 Lake Placid Games. The team included Eddie Eagan, who was a boxing champion in the 1920 Games. Eagan remains the only person to have won gold medals in both the Summer and Winter Games. The Games held in Squaw Valley in 1960 became the only Winter Games event not to include bobsledding, as the organizing committee refused to build an expensive bobsled run for the mere nine nations that would use it. In 1988, Jamaica entered its first bobsled team, finishing last. However, they did...
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Most coaches work their entire careers to become a coordinator in the Big Ten. Few of them even reach that far. Jim Leonhard has done it in one year.

To be clear, there is a lot more to this story than Leonhard’s one year ascension from defensive backs coach to the Wisconsin defensive coordinator job, which the Badgers announced Thursday. He was a prototypical Favorite Son as a player for Barry Alvarez, earning three All-Big Ten honors as a Badgers safety (pictured above). He then crafted a 10-year career as an NFL defensive back for various teams before returning to Madison in 2016, helping Wisconsin rank 10th nationally in pass efficiency defense.

That success led Paul Chryst to promote Leonhard to the big chair in Wisconsin’s defensive staff room.

Said Leonhard, to Wisconsin’s official team site:

“A year ago, if you were to ask me if this was going to happen, I’d probably would have laughed at you — not knowing exactly how it was going to go and how...

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The world progresses at a rapid pace, but in sport it often stands still. Sometimes for decades. Sometimes for hundreds of years.

On Thursday, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews announced that it will admit women as members. The 260-year-old institution sent out more than 2,400 ballot papers to its patrons, and the result was 85% for yes.

Golf is often regarded as being out of step in a modern society that dances to an ever-changing beat. In a world where women now box at the Olympics, England's female cricketers and rugby union players recently went full-time and hundreds of thousands of women play golf both recreationally and professionally, the sport retains many of its traditions, archaic rules and inequality.

It is not alone.

Here we look at six sports in which differences between men and women remain, and examine why those distinctions continue.

Gymnastics: Showing off the female's grace and flexibility and the male's power and...

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In the 1994 Winter Olympics, the Jamaican bobsled team had its best showing ever. After the first of four runs, the Jamaicans were just 0.83 seconds out of the lead. But despite that strong start, they had virtually no chance to win a medal. That’s not because they were from a small, tropical country, nor because they had faltered in previous Olympics. Rather, the Jamaicans had no chance because nobody who's trailing in an Olympic bobsled competition ever has a chance. In 1994, the first-place Germans followed up with three more almost identical runs and went on to win the gold. It happens every time. There is no international competition that’s more predictable, or more dreadfully boring.

The rules of Olympic bobsled are simple. In the two-person and four-person events, each team slides down the track four times. (The men compete in both bobsled formats, while women are restricted to the two-at-a-time variety.) The track does not change from round to round. The team with...

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, also called bobsleighing, the sport of sliding down an ice-covered natural or artificial incline on a four-runner sled, called a bobsled, bobsleigh, or bob, that carries either two or four persons.

Bobsledding developed in the 1880s both in the lumbering towns of upstate New York and at the ski resorts of the Swiss Alps. The first organized competition (among teams consisting of three men and two women) was held in 1898 on the Cresta Run at Saint Moritz, Switzerland. The sport earned its name after competitors adopted the technique of bobbing back and forth to increase the speed of the sled. In 1923 bobsledding became an internationally recognized sport with the organization of the...

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As with so much else in life, in two-man bobsled, timing is everything.

American teams have seen success in international competition, just not in the one most people in this country pay any attention to: the Olympics. The United States hasn’t won gold since the 1936 Winter Games at Garmesh-Partenkirchen in Germany.

Beating the world’s best is difficult even under ideal circumstances, and for years American sledders have operated under anything but as the only prominent national team not receiving government funding. Moreover, many of the big manufacturers in Europe themselves receive government funding to help produce better sleds, in turn producing better results. The sled is like a third member of the team, and any weakness relative to the competition shows in the standings.

This year, things are different. Hoping to build, then drive, a better mousetrap, Team USA turned to the North American division of BMW, a company well-versed in speed … just not...

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It is true that men and women are attracted to each other because of the biological and psychological differences. (Remember the nature law: unlike poles attracts, like poles repels.) However, it is also true that the differences usually lead to a bitter relationship. Relationship between a man and woman often fails because women expect men to think and act as women, and men expect women to think and act as men. If men and women understand the differences, they will not only learn to tolerate the opposite sex, but also build a cordial relationship.

Even though people understand the biological differences between a man and a woman, most of them are not familiar with the psychological differences. Man and a woman’s body function in a different way, so does the mind. Men and women use different parts of the brain to understand and process information. It is often said that female brain multi-tasks where are men think about one thing at a time.

Behavioural and...

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Racing a bobsled requires three things -- a team, a bobsled (or bob) and a track. The team includes either two or four athletes who steer, brake and add to the overall weight of the bobsled. The bob has an aerodynamic design and smooth runners so it can go as fast as possible. The track, generally made of concrete, has a solid ice surface. On the way down, bobsleds reach speeds of 80 miles an hour (130 Kph), even around curves. Crashes are common.

Four-man and two-man bobsled teams

It's easy to guess that being a bobsledder requires bravery and a good sense of balance. But making it down the run requires more than just coordination and nerve. Bobsleds weigh hundreds of pounds. The driver and brakeman (and the crewmen or push athletes in four-man teams) have to get the bob moving from a complete stop. They have to run as fast as they can, then jump inside the bob before the first curve. They also have to withstand extreme gravitational forces during the...

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The most critical part of a bobsled run is its start. Teams focus on explosive starts because momentum at that point strongly affects the sled’s speed throughout the course. Saving one-tenth of a second during the start often translates to saving one-third of a second on the run as a whole.

To set the bobsled in motion, team members sprint while pushing the sled forward. They run for about 50 m (164 ft) and then leap into the sled just before the first turn, assuming streamlined positions for the remainder of the run. The driver occupies the front position and steers the sled. The brakeman, in the rear position, operates the brake. On a four-man bobsled the two middle sledders contribute mostly during the start, although they also shift their weight during turns. On the course, drivers try to steer through the turns smoothly and to prevent the sled from skidding into the walls. The greatest challenge is to maintain a tight line on the banked curves, not...

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As you oooh, ahhh and wince over different Winter Olympic events, do you find a host of questions running through your mind about weird sleds, weird skates and weird injuries? We’ve got your burning Sochi questions covered here!

What’s the difference between luge, bobsled and skeleton, anyway?

All three events take place on an ice-covered course with banking turns, but there are crucial differences between the three, including the type of sled used to navigate the run.

The only discipline in which the athlete starts in the sled is luge. The racer lies on his or her back on a flat sled, feet first, and then pulls himself or herself forward to begin the run. The racer then angles his or her body to steer down the course on the sled, which can reach speeds of up to 90 miles per hour. Luge is mainly an individual sport, although there is a two-man luge event, which TODAY’s Al Roker and Matt Lauer will attempt in Sochi in all their Spandexed...

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Modern bobsled races are competitions between two-person or four-person teams. Bobsleds have the same basic components whether they are built to hold two or four athletes. Each bob has:

A steel frame A fiberglass hull that's closed in the front and open in the back, also called a cowling A movable set of front runners A fixed set of rear runners Collapsible push-bars for driver and crewmen Fixed push-bars for brakemen A jagged metal brake on a lever, used only after the bob crosses the finish line A steering system

The Federation Internationale de Bobsledding et de Tobogganing (FIBT) sets rules for the composition and dimensions of each of these components, as well as the total weight of bobsleds. Bobsled manufacturers work closely with bobsled teams and designers to make the best sled design.

Each type of bob has a minimum weight when empty and a maximum weight with bobsledders and their equipment. Weight limits for bobsleds are:

Two-man: minimum 384 pounds...
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The first organized competition in the sport was held on the Cresta Run on January 5, 1898, with five-passenger sleds with two of the passengers being women. For better steering, they were equipped with four runners, positioned on axles much like the four wheels of a car. With the new design, speeds on the mountainside became dangerously fast, so an artificial bobsled run with a gentler slope was built at St. Moritz in 1902.

Bobsledding spread rapidly to other Alpine countries. By 1914, when the first European championships took place at St. Moritz, there were more than a hundred bobsled runs in Europe.

The Federation Internationale de Bobsleigh et Tobagganning (FIBT) was founded in 1923 to establish rules so that the sport could be included in the first Winter Olympics at Chamonix, France, in 1924. Only four-man ...

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As a woman and a psychologist who has treated women and couples in the last two decades, I find that as I get older, I make a lot more comments to both male and female patients about how the sexes differ. Let’s take an every day example. A woman complains that her husband or male partner does not listen. Women often complain that a male counterpart wants to provide advice when she talks about a problem. We women can feel unheard in this situation, as we would like our partners to remark on the content of our feelings. Sound familiar?

When I am talking with patients, I often try to normalize the above example as one way that men and women are different. Although it may be that a couple is not compatible because of difficulties communicating, I am rarely worried about a partnership based on different communication styles. Rather, I try to educate men, women and couples about the differences in perceptions regarding what is ideal communication. Because a man offers advice does...

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Mark B. Kastleman

Significant differences exist between the male and female brains. Although what follows has been meticulously gathered from the research and writings of leading scientists and psychologists, it is by no means a hard and fast rule or description of every man and every woman. Every person is different and unique.

However, the facts clearly bear out that for nearly all men and women there are significant differences between the male and female brain. This means that in most cases, men and women do not behave, feel, think, or respond in the same ways, either on the inside or on the outside.

The male brain is highly specialized, using specific parts of one hemisphere or the other to accomplish specific tasks. The female brain is more diffused and utilizes significant portions of both hemispheres for a variety of tasks. Men are able to focus on narrow issues and block out unrelated information and distractions. Women naturally see everyday things from...
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So Friday night (Feb. 15) was a big night for Team Holm Bobsled. As a driver and as pushers, moving into four-man bobsled training after a season of two-man is a refreshing and exhilerating step!

And a little nerve wracking. While you might think that the two events are so closely related that there's no difference between the two, the honest truth is that there are big differences. The biggest would have to be for me, as a driver. The difference between driving a two-man sled and a four-man sled is comparable to the difference between driving a compact car and a full-sized tractor trailer rig. While they both go on the same road, their handling styles are worlds apart.

As it is in bobsled. In a two-man bobsled you are able to make quicker changes and corrections in your lines on the track. In a four-man sled, however, with that much mass moving at slightly faster speeds, well, its not as easy to drive. Once you drive a four-man sled into a line in a turn, it just...

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Understanding The Difference Between Men And Women

By: Michael G. Conner, Psy.D, Clinical & Medical Psychologist

E-mail: Conner@OregonCounseling.Org
Phone: 541 388-5660

[ This paper is collection of research conclusions and observations which I have witnessed over the past 5 year that I have attempted to put into a written form that might be helpful, but more importantly stimulate discussions. The real purposes is to increase the awareness between men and women, and to help them set aside issues that are not personal but are merely manifestations of nature. To my way of thinking, it is important to honor and rejoice in both our nature and our individuality.]

For centuries, the differences between men and women were socially defined and distorted through a lens of sexism in which men assumed superiority over women and maintained it through domination. As the goal of equality between men and women now grows closer we are...

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Cool Runnings is a 1993 American comedy sports film directed by Jon Turteltaub, and starring Leon, Doug E. Doug, Rawle D. Lewis, Malik Yoba and John Candy. The film was released in the United States on October 1, 1993. It was Candy's third to last film of his career and the last of his films to be released during his lifetime. It is loosely based on the true story of the Jamaica national bobsleigh team's debut in competition during the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.[1][2] The film received positive reviews, and the film's soundtrack also became popular with Jimmy Cliff's cover of "I Can See Clearly Now" reaching the top 40 as a single in nations such as Canada, France, and the UK.

Derice Bannock, a top 100m runner, fails to qualify at the Olympic Trial for the 1988 Summer Olympics when fellow runner Junior Bevil trips and falls, taking Derice and another runner, Yul Brenner, with him.

To compete in the Olympics, he and his best friend, Sanka Coffie,...

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