Could the home field advantage in baseball be due to the “principle of last action?”


Pitcher mound is a result of trial and error in order to find the perfect distance and height that will be some kind of point of equality so the pitcher and the batter won't be advantage on each other and ensuring the attraction of the game.
It is because we don't want a game when a pitcher is always striking out players and on the other hand we don't want the batter to do a home run in every bat.

First a little bit of history..

How the pitcher's mound was born?

In the early days of baseball , pitchers were required to stay within a pitcher's box that had its front edge 45 feet away from home plate. But pitchers were dominating batters, so in 1881, the front edge of the box was moved back five feet.

But this was still not enough, so in 1887, a new rule required a pitcher to keep his back foot on a line that was 55 and one-half feet from the plate. Finally in 1893, the pitcher's box was removed, but the pitcher's plate, or rubber, was...

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I think you're confusing "run" and "home run". In high-level terms:

A run is scored when a player starts off as a batter then makes it all the way back round to home plate without being put out, no matter if he stops at any bases along the way. A home run happens when a batter hits the ball over the fences (or equivalent). When this happens, any players currently on first, second or third bases also get to finish their circle of the bases and score a run (but not a home run).

As such in your situation, two runs are scored: one for the player who was already on first, and one for the batter who hit the home run. However, only the batter is credited with a home run. It's possibly also worth noting here that for the purposes of winning the game, runs are the only thing that matters. It doesn't matter if they were home runs or not - they all count as runs; it's perfectly possible to win a game without scoring a single home run, but you obviously have to score at least one...

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This was actually a fairly tough on to dig up. As you mention in your question, the East and West swapped back and forth, and until 1985 the AL and NL were in sync. However something happened in 1985. Change came to the playoffs. The LCS were changed from 5 games to 7 and in addition the commissioner decided that the AL and NL would go to opposite divisions hosting each year. So in 1985 it was declared that the West would get home field as scheduled and that in the AL the East would get home field for a second year in a row. After that they returned to their regular schedules with the AL East hosting in odd years and the AL west hosting in even ones, and the NL east hosting in even years and the NL west hosting in odd years.

This was tough to track down, the best source I found was this mailbag from a Mets blog about the following year's...

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First of all 10% of the population are left-handed, but amazingly 25% of baseball players are left-handed.
This 2.5 times than average isn't randomly, This fact helps proving that left-handed baseball players has an advantage in baseball.

We need to distinguish between 2 claims:

First one is that Left-handed pitchers have an advantage in baseball.

Washington University aerospace engineer David Peters has done research on this issue and his main conclusions were:

The biggest advantage has to do with the angle of the ball. Three quarters of pitchers are right-handed. A right-handed batter has to look over his left shoulder and the ball is coming at quite an angle. The offset of your eyes gives you depth perception. So when you're looking over your shoulder, you have lost the distance between your two eyes quite a bit, so you have lost that 10th of a second to see the ball. That's why batters switch hit.

Twenty-five percent of players...

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Just how important is home-field advantage in Major League Baseball?

With the St. Louis Cardinals and Oakland Athletics hosting the Pittsburgh Pirates and Detroit Tigers, respectively, in two winner-take-all games in the American and National League Division Series, fans of the two former clubs might want to know just how much of an advantage home field really is.

To find out, we perused the results of every postseason over the past 10 years in MLB, as well as in the three other major American professional sports—for comparison's sake—and marked down each time a team in the host position won the series or game. The outcomes were then totaled to come up with a percentage that reveals all.

Let's have a gander, shall we?

Major League Baseball

Baseball Reference

(*Note: Adding the extra wild card—and the wild-card play-in game—last October, pushed the number of playoff rounds from seven to nine.)

The baseball playoffs are the most...

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As of Sunday, only two division titles were wrapped up—by the Mets and Royals—and in both instances the teams rested their regular players despite not having secured a home-field advantage through the playoffs.

Why? The home-field advantage—while still an advantage in baseball—traditionally isn’t as pronounced in the major leagues as it is in other sports.

It’s another in a line of odd things about baseball that we’ve grown accustomed to.

Last year’s Fall Classic was played between wild card teams San Francisco and Kansas City—both of which advanced through the LDS and LCS without the benefit of a home-field advantage. Then in their World Series matchup, the Royals—by virtue of the AL winning the All-Star Game exhibition—had the home-field advantage so, of course, the Giants won in seven.

No one blinked an eye at this, of course. It’s baseball.

In all, six of the seven baseball postseason series last year—excluding the one-game wild card playoff...

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In every sport and at every level, the home team wins more games than the visiting team. While this is true in baseball, it's less the case than in other sports. Throughout baseball history, the home team has won approximately 54 percent of the games played. Nearly every aspect of the game has changed drastically over the last century, but home-field advantage has barely changed at all. Consider the home-field advantage in each decade since 1901:

Decade Home Win% 1901-09 .533 1910-19 .540 1920-29 .543 1930-39 .553 1940-49 .544 1950-59 .539 1960-69 .540 1970-79 .538 1980-89 .541 1990-99 .535 2000-09 .542

Although small decreases in home-field advantage have occurred at times, any incidence still represented a very small change relative to the large changes in nearly every other baseball...

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Home advantage (also called home field/court/diamond/ice advantage) is an athletic competition phenomenon. In team sports, a team playing at its own stadium or arena is known as the home team. The other team is known as the visiting team or the away team, and can be said to be on the road. Teams typically play their home games in or near their home region; they will generally have half their total games at home in a season.

In many sports, such designations may also apply to games played at a neutral site; as the rules of various sports make different provisions for home and visiting teams. In baseball, for instance, the team designated the home team bats second in each inning, whereas the "visiting" team bats first.

Advantages of being the home team

In most team sports, the home or hosting team is considered to have a significant advantage over the visitors. Due to this, many important games (such as playoff or...

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What is the home field advantage in Major League Baseball? This isn’t an easy question to answer, but it is an important question to ask when considering betting on baseball. Because MLB betting doesn’t involve a point spread (there is a runline, but that is a much different story) it’s not as easy for us to establish a baseline for what home field advantage is worth. Wins, not winning margins are more important when you are betting on the moneyline, so how can we quantify a true home field advantage to increase our winning percentage?

I started with looking at the home and away records for every MLB team over the past five seasons


Home Record: 1288-1140 (.530) Away Record: 1140-1288 (.470)


Home Record: 1306-1124 (.537) Away Record: 1124-1306 (.463)


Home Record: 1295-1135 (.533) Away Record: 1135-1295 (.467)


Home Record: 1276-1153 (.525) Away Record: 1153-1276 (.475)


Home Record: 1358-1072...
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Extra innings is the extension of a baseball or softball game in order to break a tie.

Ordinarily, a baseball game consists of nine innings (in softball and high school baseball games there are typically seven innings; in Little League, six), each of which is divided into halves: the visiting team bats first, after which the home team takes its turn at bat. However, if the score remains tied at the end of the regulation number of complete innings, the rules provide that "play shall continue until (1) the visiting team has scored more total runs than the home team at the end of a completed inning; or (2) the home team scores the winning run in an uncompleted inning."

The rules of the game, including the batting order, availability of substitute players and pitchers, etc., remain intact in extra innings. Managers must display caution to avoid using all their substitute players, in case the game reaches extensive extra innings. The rules call for a forfeiture if a team...

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It has been observed that in baseball, a home team has a statistical 54-46 advantage, all other things being equal. There have been various theories to account for this, including the impact of fan support, and possible "home team" bias by umpires.

But there may be a more tangible home team advantage called the "principle of last action." This advantage derives from the fact that the home team bats and score last in every inning, and in the game itself.

In poker, there is a large advantage to being last, and seeing what other people have done. For instance, if you are "last" with a mediocre hand, and have observed other people betting timidly (or not at all), you might bet to steal the pot. If others have "raised" each others' bets, you might "fold" and let the stronger hands fight it out. If you were first to go with the same, mediocre hand, you would have to bet (or not) without knowing what others wanted to do.

Beginning in the ninth, and all the extra...

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The following is a cross-post from, where we’ve recently launched a Football Freakonomics Project.

Do home teams really have an advantage?

Absolutely. In their book Scorecasting, Toby Moscowitz and Jon Wertheim helpfully compile the percentage of home games won by teams in all the major sports. Some data sets go back further than others (MLB figures are since 1903; NFL figures are “only” from 1966, and MLS since 2002), but they are all large enough to be conclusive:

So it’s hard to argue against the home-field advantage. In fact my Freakonomics co-author Steve Levitt once wrote an academic paper about the wisdom of betting (shh!) on home underdogs (more here).

But why does that advantage exist? There are a lot of theories to consider, including:

“Sleeping in your own bed” and “eating home cooking” Better familiarity with the home field/court Crowd support

Those all make sense, don’t they? In Scorecasting, Moscowitz and Wertheim...

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Grooving All-Star Game pitches to legends like Derek Jeter is no longer innocent fun. (via Keith Allison)

In just a few hours, after nine (or more!) innings of exhibition baseball, we will learn two things: 1) which league’s somewhat arbitrarily selected group of players beat the other league’s somewhat arbitrarily selected group of players in a single game played under bizarre conditions (Five starting pitchers! Pinch hitters at every turn!) and 2) which league gets home-field advantage in the World Series.

The former is part of the fun of the All-Star Game; the latter has been a source of controversy ever since the rule was implemented in 2003. In the midst of years of declining TV ratings and following the debacle that was the tie in the 2002 All-Star Game, Major League Baseball decided the cure to all ills was to make the All-Star Game “matter.” This time it counts!

The problem is that making the All-Star Game “matter” hasn’t had much positive impact and...

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On Monday, Major League Baseball will christen two new stadiums, New Yankee Stadium and Citi Field. The previous New York stadiums were known as intimidating places to play in, and fans are probably wondering whether the new ballparks will confer as great of a home field advantage as the old buildings - particularly in the case of Yankee Stadium, where the ghosts of Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, and others were said to give Yankee Stadium a certain aura of invincibility. This article attempts to explore the relationship of a stadium to home field advantage, and how it might affect the two New York ballparks.

Of course everybody knows that playing at home is indeed an advantage. Over the course of modern baseball history, the difference between playing at home vs. on the road has been about 80 points of team WPCT - a road team will win about 46% of its games, and a home team will win about 54% of its games, all else being equal. But do some parks confer more of an advantage than...

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The rules of baseball have an intriguing quirk that other major-league sports do not have, namely, the sequential order of play which always affords the last at-bat to the home team. We became interested in exploring the strategic effects of this quirk. If there is a significant strategic advantage (or disadvantage) to having the last at-bat, it may show up as a difference in win percentage of the home team in close games, where strategy is more important, compared to the win percentage of home teams in games which are blowouts. Our paper is motivated by attempting to exploit the "natural experiment" of comparing close games to blowouts.

In previous literature, the possibility that strategic effects might come into play because of the sequential nature of the play is only partially recognized. For example, Carmichael and Thomas state as their third reason for home field advantage, "rules factors that may extend special privileges explicitly favoring the home team, such as...

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"Midsummer Classic" redirects here. For the NASCAR race at Eldora Speedway, see

Mudsummer Classic


The Major League Baseball All-Star Game, also known as the "Midsummer Classic", is an annual professional baseball game sanctioned by Major League Baseball (MLB) contested between players from the American League (AL) and the National League (NL), currently selected by fans for starting fielders, by managers for pitchers, and by managers and players for reserves.

The game usually occurs on either the second or third Tuesday in July, and is meant to mark a symbolic halfway-point in the MLB season (though not the mathematical halfway-point which, for most seasons, is usually found within the previous calendar week). Both of the major leagues share a common All-Star break, with no regular-season games scheduled on the day before or two days[1] after the All-Star Game itself. Some additional events and festivities associated with the game take place each year close to...

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