What does it mean to say, “X was the Nth overall pick for this season”?

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HTTP -- that is the actual transport protocol between the server and the client -- is "stateless" because it remembers nothing between invocations. EVERY resource that is accessed via HTTP is a single request with no threaded connection between them. If you load a web page with an HTML file that within it contains three tags hitting the same server, there will be four TCP connections negotiated and opened, four data transfers, four connections closed. There is simply no state kept at the server at the protocol level that will have the server know anything about you as you come in.

(Well, that's true for HTTP up to 1.0 at any rate. HTTP 1.1 adds persistent connection mechanisms of various sorts because of the inevitable performance problems that a truly stateless protocol engenders. We'll overlook this for the moment because they don't really make HTTP stateful, they just make it dirty-stateless instead of pure-stateless.)

To help you understand the difference,...

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We have to take a look at the way things look to us. Both Einstein, and later on, Heisenberg, taught us that the universe works based on who is looking. In other words, you simply cannot accurately describe the way anything works without first understanding the point of view of the observer, and this isn't just some philosophical nonsense- the only way for us to really begin to understand the way things are is to understand the filter through which we perceive it.

Imagine looking out at the world through red-tinted glasses. If someone was to ask you what color something was, you might answer, "red, just like everything!" On the other hand, if you were aware that you were wearing glasses that made everything tend to look red, you might try to ascertain info about the color scheme some other way, maybe by asking other people what color everything was (or, of course, you might just take the glasses off).

When you fall off of your bicycle as you’re learning how to ride,...

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PAIS MA/Diploma 2013/14

Assessed Essay Submission Cover Sheet*

Instructions: Submit one electronic document, with this cover sheet as the first page, followed by your essay, via the e-submission page of the website: https://tabula.warwick.ac.uk/coursework/
The Department does not accept submission by email or hard copy.
You should read the online MA Handbook carefully for information on presentation, abstracts, word counts, plagiarism, late penalties etc.
Statement on plagiarism:
By submitting this form I acknowledge that I have read and understood the Department’s notes on “Plagiarism” contained in the MA Handbook: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/pais/currentstudents/masters/academic/mahandbook/assessment/penalties/
Provide the following information
Core MA/Dip Programme (eg GAD, IR, IPE, IS, IPEA, IPEU, Pol, PP, USFP): International Political Economy (IPE)
External degree if applicable (please...

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What does it mean to say that a process is using 75% of a CPU's resources?

I thought that a core was responsible for processing a single thread. Hence, what does it mean when one says a process takes up 75% of resources? Is that memory? Computing power?

Let’s use an analogy: imagine a an ambidextrous celebrity sitting at a table, signing autographs.

Here are the specs for the system (the signing event as a whole):

The celebrity (CPU) is signing autographs (doing work).

There is a line (queue) of fans (processes) who come up and ask him to sign (do work) photos, autograph books, shirts, bodies, etc. (memory, files, etc.)

The celebrity has and can write with both of his hands (cores).

Some fans are VIPs (higher priority) and so get to cut ahead in line and stay at the table longer.

Some are normal fans who stand in line for themselves (single-threaded) while some are “power users” like managers, and other business people...

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The English idiomatic phrase “hay is for horses” is a specific idiom with a particular meaning and use; at its core, the phrase is really a remonstration for someone using the word “hey” as a verbal opener, to address someone or start a sentence. The idiom uses a pun on the words “hey” and “hay,” which are “homophones” or words that sound alike. If someone says “hey,” someone else might answer “hay is for horses.”

The implicit second part of this phrase is that since hay is for horses, it is not for people. This kind of idiom was popular in older times when more formal uses of English prevailed in many English-speaking societies. These days, it has become less common to address someone’s use of the word “hey,” although this still may not be appropriate in a more formal setting. Although people might not use this phrase that much anymore, it remains a primary example of an idiom that has a more focused purpose and use. Many idioms are just describing situations, but this...

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If you have tuned into any games featuring Western Michigan you have heard the term “Row the Boat”. It’s on helmets, signs, t-shirts, banners and just about everything that features a Western Michigan logo. It is a term that Broncos coach P.J. Fleck uses to motivate his team but it is more than just a cheeky saying.

Fleck described it as a “never give up mantra” in a recent interview with ESPN’s Scott Van Pelt. He explained there are three main parts to the philosophy. To row the boat you need an oar. Fleck described the oar as “what you bring to life” and explained that people choose whether their oar is in or out of the water. To move forward, the oar must be in the water.

The second part of the philosophy is the boat. “What are you willing to give up for something you have never had,” Fleck explained to Van Pelt. Finally, the compass is what you use to figure out the direction you are going.

The idea was birthed when Fleck and his wife, Heather, lost their...

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Some Things Americans Say… and What They REALLY Mean

When it comes to the spoken word, Americans are a truly baffling bunch. So we’ve decoded their most irritating idioms.

1. When an American shop assistant says, “Have a nice day!”

Translation: “Honestly, I don’t care what kind of day you have. But please tell my manager I was friendly so I get extra commission.”
Definitely doesn’t mean: “I will sob myself to sleep if I subsequently learn that you had a less than adequate day.”

2. When an American you’ve just met says, “Let’s have lunch sometime.”

Translation: “Let’s never ever eat a meal together.”
Definitely doesn’t mean: “I urgently need to see you put food in your mouth.”

3. When an American friend says, “I hooked up with…”

Translation: “I had sex with/kissed/hung out with…”
Definitely doesn’t mean: “I attached myself to someone with a metal clasp.”

4. When American parents say, “Good...

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It’s the most frequent word in the English language, accounting for around 4 percent of all the words we write or speak. It’s everywhere, all the time, so clearly it must be doing something important. Words have meaning. That’s fundamental, isn’t it? So this word “the,” a word that seems to be supporting a significant portion of the entire weight of our language, what does this word mean? It must mean something, right?

We can say, roughly, that “the” means the word it is attached to refers to a specific, individual object. When I say “I have the apple,” I mean a certain apple, not just “an apple”—any old apple, or “apples” in general.

But, of course, it’s not quite that easy. Sometimes “the” doesn’t indicate a specific object, but a whole class of objects. When you say you know how to play “the piano” or that exercise is good for “the heart,” there is no specific piano or heart you have in mind. “The pen is mightier than the sword” isn’t about specific pens or swords...

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Let's take a look at the 2014 NFL Draft for example.

So, when a player is said to be the “first overall pick for a season, does it mean that he was the first one to be drafted by any team for that year? Or does it mean he was just picked in the first (of the seven rounds) round?

The Houston Texans have the first pick in the first round, or the first overall pick. Thus, X will be the first overall pick for this [draft] and he will go to the Houston Texans as the first pick in the first round.

The Houston Texans have the first pick in the second round, or the 33rd overall pick. Thus, X will be the 33rd overall pick for this [draft] and he will go to the Houston Texans as the first pick in the second round.

The draft order does not change round by round, meaning if Houston has the first pick in the first round, they will have the first pick in each of the following rounds. However, a team may trade draft picks with another team for players or other draft...

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The average is a simple term with several meanings. The type of average to use depends on whether you’re adding, multiplying, grouping or dividing work among the items in your set.

Quick quiz: You drove to work at 30 mph, and drove back at 60 mph. What was your average speed?

Hint: It’s not 45 mph, and it doesn’t matter how far your commute is. Read on to understand the many uses of this statistical tool.

But what does it mean?

Let’s step back a bit: what is the “average” all about?

To most of us, it’s “the number in the middle” or a number that is “balanced”. I’m a fan of taking multipleviewpoints, so here’s another interpretation of the average:

The average is the value that can replace every existing item, and have the same result. If I could throw away my data and replace it with one “average” value, what would it be?

One goal of the average is to understand a data set by getting a “representative” sample. But the...

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Anyone who has shopped for a sleeping bag is all-too-familiar with temperature ratings of sleeping bags. Unfortunately, as many people have also discovered, sleeping bag temperature ratings are often wrong—and sometimes very wrong.

While it’s always tempting to blame manufacturers for inaccurate labeling, there are many reasons a sleeping bag fails to keep everyone warm at a specific temperature. This article first explains how manufacturers obtain a sleeping bags temperature rating. Then the article explores other factors that affect a bags temperature rating. Additionally, you might wish to read other articles about sleeping bags on this site:

What Sleeping Bag Temperature Ratings Mean

A sleeping bag temperature rating is the manufacturer’s "best guess" how warm the bag is for the "average person." They arrive at a rating by giving bags to testers or employees, who then test the bags in various environmental conditions or in an "ice box."

However,...

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Nobody likes a fake. Even in our airbrush culture, we despise counterfeits and crave authenticity. Everyone wants to be real.

But what does it mean to be real? No one really knows. Or so it seems.

Try an experiment. Listen to people talk about what it means to be a Christian. Do you know what you will hear? Lots of competing answers and plenty of confusion.

Perhaps you recall when 2012 presidential hopeful, Senator Rick Santorum, claimed that President Barack Obama’s policies were based on “a different theology.”

Reporters, of course, pounced on this juicy piece of journalist red meat. “Did Senator Santorum,” they asked, “have the audacity, not of hope, but political incorrectness, to call into question the president’s claim to be a Christian?”

When Senator Santorum was pressed, he gave a politically savvy response: “If the president says he’s a Christian, he’s a Christian.” End of story. Next question, please.

His answer satisfied...

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Download What Does "Gay" Mean? PDF

There is not one right answer:

Many people have grown up without hearing the words “gay” or “lesbian.” Therefore, you may not be sure how to respond when a student asks you what they mean. It is better to try to answer than to respond with silence or evade the question.

Practice different responses with colleagues, just as you practice other things that you want to learn. Figure out what you feel comfortable saying.

Responses will vary by age and developmental stage of the student. Your comfort in answering these questions will set a welcoming tone in your class and school community.

Keep it simple:

An answer can be as simple as: “‘Gay’ means when a man loves a man or a woman loves a woman.” Try to answer the question honestly without overloading a student with information. Throughout elementary school a student’s ability to understand what “gay” means and what your explanation means may increase...

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The NBA draft is an annual event dating back to 1947 in which the thirty teams from the National Basketball Association (NBA) can draft players who are eligible and wish to join the league. These are typically college basketball players, but international players are also eligible to be drafted. College players who have finished their four-year college eligibility are automatically eligible for selection, while the underclassmen have to declare their eligibility and give up their remaining college eligibility. International players who are at least 23 years old are automatically eligible for selection, while the players younger than 22 have to declare their eligibility. Players who are not automatically eligible but have declared their eligibility are often called "early-entrants" or "early-entry candidates". The draft usually takes place at the end of June, during the NBA off-season. Since 1989, the draft has consisted of two rounds; this is much shorter than the entry drafts of...

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