Why doesn't every match always use Hawk-Eye technology in tennis tournaments?

Is it possible with current technology itself? As far as I know, yes.

I remember a competing solution to Hawk-Eye called the Auto-Ref system. Both are based on 3-D imaging of the ball's trajectory using multiple high speed cameras (8-10), and position cum time data. Auto-Ref, as the name suggests, was developed to make instantaneous in-out calls, whereas Hawk-Eye was developed as a replay system, and thus does not (did not?) have the same capability.

Both Hawk-Eye and Auto-Ref were trialled by the ITF and were successful. They have a statistical error of 3-5 mm, roughly the size of the fluff on the ball. Some people think that is too much. Like all technology, it can make errors from time to time just due to mechanical malfunction. Also, the system can stop working if there is lack of lighting or irregular shadows etc. which can jumble the optics. Also, there have been several controversial calls where the replays show the ball clearly to be out/in, but the system, while...

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I'm more familiar with the debate over the use of Hawk-Eye in cricket (where the technology remains controversial, particularly in India), but I'll venture a few suggestions.

Crowd participation
As anyone who's attended an important tennis match in the past few years will know, the use of Hawk-Eye for resolving disputed line calls has proved extremely popular with spectators. It's a game within a game. It has a kind of levelling effect; during the replay, the players themselves become spectators. No more disputed line calls would mean no more player challenges, something spectators would miss. (Though I'm guessing the nostalgia would be fleeting.)

Both between tournaments and within tournaments. Hawk-Eye is by no means ubiquitous. It is currently used only in certain elite-level tournaments and only on the "show courts" at Grand Slam tournaments. At Wimbledon, for example, Hawk-Eye is only used on four of the 19 courts [1]. So either Hawk-Eye would need...

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The Impact of the Hawk-Eye System in Tennis


New technological advances have helped enhance our lives in ways never before thought possible. Advancements in medicine, warfare, education and even sports have become common and are expected as our society continues to grow. It is also a common occurrence that new advancements in technology become the target of much scrutiny when they first emerge on the public scene. In the sport of Tennis the Hawk-Eye System has become a greatly scrutinized piece of modern technology. Since its inception into the sport many questions have arisen, but none are more important than the question: “Has the Hawk-Eye System improved the game of tennis?” Before this question can be answered we must first learn about the following: The traditional values of Tennis, The Hawk-Eye System and how it works, why is the system needed?, are there problems with the system?, contributions to the sport and player support.


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Manuel Neuer of Germany watches the ball bounce over the line from a shot from England's Frank Lampard.


England, Mexico latest victims of refereeing "errors" at World Cup in South Africa FIFA has no plans to introduce goal-line technology to clarify decisions Sepp Blatter says current technology is inaccurate, complicated and expensive Technology such as Hawk-Eye successfully used in Tennis, Cricket, Ice Hockey

London, England (CNN) -- Forget the troublesome flight of the Jabulani ball or the impact of playing at altitude, this World Cup looks likely to be dominated by one issue: FIFA's refusal to use video technology during matches.

On Sunday, the head of football's governing body looked on as England's Frank Lampard was inexplicably denied a clear goal against Germany by the match officials who failed to see the ball drop well behind the goal line. The Germans, leading 2-1 at the time, went on to win the match 4-1.

Later that...

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If you had to select the most exciting innovation you’ve seen in tennis, what would it be?

‘Surely the most exciting technological innovation is the Hawk-Eye (electronic line calling system). It has been a great aid to the referee and the umpire. We took away some of their responsibilities, but it’s a great aid because players prefer the objective system to the discretional system. Secondly, we discovered something that we never imagined Hawk-Eye would give us: better crowd control. Previously in the team competitions, we had problems when the call was debatable. A very famous example was in 2002 in Chile when we had to stop the Davis Cup tie between Chile and Argentina (when spectators threw objects onto the court). Now, with Hawk-Eye, crowd control is very easy because as soon as people see what the call is, they calm down. It fulfills a function that very often people don’t realize but it is very important.’

What are the other key technological innovations on the...

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Officials would have to spend 30 minutes re-configuring their setup after each match. (AP)

Using Hawk-Eye on clay would require more technological adjustments than it would on hard courts, according to the company's director of tennis.

According to Peter Irwin, Hawk-Eye officials would have to spend 30 minutes re-configuring their setup after each match.

"One thing that’s integral to our system is we measure the court, but we also measure the undulations in the ground,” Irwin told The New York Times. “So when you play on clay, obviously the ground is constantly changing, so that would require a lot more work from our side. We would constantly have to recalibrate the system if it were to be used for officiating.

“On a hard court, we do it once at the start of the tournament because the surface doesn’t change. On grass, we do calibrate constantly throughout, but clay is just a lot more."

However, he added that swirling clay, rainfall and minor...

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Camera system Hawk-Eye at the

Kremlin Cup

tennis tournament on 20 October 2012, Moscow

Hawk-Eye is a complex computer system used officially in numerous sports such as cricket, tennis, Gaelic football, badminton, hurling, Rugby Union, association football and volleyball, to visually track the trajectory of the ball and display a record of its statistically most likely path as a moving image.[1]

Hawk-Eye was developed in the United Kingdom by Paul Hawkins. The system was originally implemented in 2001 for television purposes in cricket. The system works via six (sometimes seven) high-performance cameras, normally positioned on the underside of the stadium roof, which track the ball from different angles. The video from the six cameras is then triangulated and combined to create a three-dimensional representation of the trajectory of the ball. Hawk-Eye is not infallible and is accurate to within 5 millimetres (0.19 inch) but is generally trusted as an impartial...

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Based on my experience covering tennis, professional players usually remember to bring their tennis shoes to the court. On a June Thursday, as I walked into Courbevoie Sport Tennis outside of Paris, I realized I hadn’t. I was there to try out a new technology from Mojjo — a French company that makes what Emmanuel Witvoet, one of its founders, calls “Hawk-Eye for everyone.” Hawk-Eye is the advanced camera-based system that tennis tournaments use to adjudicate disputed line calls and to provide advanced stats for television. It’s sophisticated, impressive and expensive — out of reach for most amateurs, in part because it uses 10 cameras. Witvoet said he and his co-founders had figured out how to do much of what Hawk-Eye does with just one camera, making it affordable for the masses.

Unlike the masses, pro players have ready access to the kind of data that Mojjo was about to provide me. They get all sorts of detailed stats after every match, and at tournaments like Wimbledon,...

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At last, after years of horribly bad referee calls, the cave full of old crooks and farts known as FIFA has approved the use of technology to track the ball in soccer games. This is a huge change, with profound implications in the most popular sport in the world.

Soccer—or football, as everyone but the United States calls it—is played by more than 250 million people in over 200 countries. It moves more money than any other sport on the planet. More importantly, billions of fans watch it avidly every other day. A soccer game—the European Cup 2012 final in which Spain destroyed Italy—generated more tweets than any other sporting event before it.

All of those fans love soccer as much as they love to discuss referee calls during and after the game. Calls that, when erroneous, may not only decide the outcome of a game but the fate of a team in a given competition or tournament, both of which often have national pride at stake. Moreover, a bad call may represent hundreds...

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The former Wimbledon champion, who is eyeing his second title at the All England Club, revealed how he finds it hard watching his brother in his BBC column.

For Murray, watching Jamie play has always proved to be a tough ask and he does not feel as though it helps his older sibling either.

“I don't really like it,” he wrote in his BBC column. “It's probably not the case but it feels as though when I watch him, he loses.

“When he played the mixed doubles final here in 2007 I was just pacing around, away from Centre Court, checking the score from time to time.

[REPORT: Murray battles past Karlovic to reach quarters]

“I only ran out for the last game when it looked like they might win.

“I couldn't watch the end of his match on Monday evening because I was talking to the media, and it obviously worked for Jamie!”

Murray explained that he does like watching tennis when he is not playing and...

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Hawk-Eye officials have admitted that their review technology made an error in a decision to give Pakistan opener Shan Masood out in the second Test against New Zealand in Dubai last month. At a meeting held at the ICC office in Dubai last week, Hawk-Eye is understood to have conceded to Pakistan captain Misbah-ul-Haq and team manager Moin Khan that the projection used by their technology for the lbw decision was incorrect.

Masood, a left-handed batsman, was dismissed in the second innings in the 30th over of the Test's final day when left-arm pacer Trent Boult bowled a swinging yorker from over the wicket to hit the batsman's left heel in front of leg stump to be given out by umpire Paul Reiffel. Masood consulted his partner Younis Khan and decided to review the decision. After several slow-motion replays, Hawk-Eye's projected path surprisingly showed the ball cutting in to hit leg stump after pitching in front of it, instead of going ahead with the angle. Since it was am...

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The evolution of professional tennis has always been linked to the changing technology of the day. For example, the decline of the wooden racket lead to the whole new power-based style of play we enjoy today. One of the more recent introductions to have significant impact is Hawk-Eye ball tracking.

It’s certainly transformed the way we watch and adjudicate tennis. But can we go further and utilise this truly awesome technology to improve the on-court performance of the competitions elite?

Tennis image via Shutterstock

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

The Traditional Use Of Hawk-Eye

Hawk-Eye is a computer vision based technology that allows the trajectory of a ball and players to be tracked purely from video. The advantage of such a system is that it’s completely un-intrusive, you don’t need to put sensors in anything.

It’s mostly used to make line-calls, as a back-up when players object...

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If you’ve watched any of Wimbledon 2015 you will have seen that Hawk-Eye is used in almost every set played on the famous grass courts of SW19. It is the first and only ball-tracking technology to have passed the stringent testing measures set out by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) and is now a key part of the ATP, WTA and ITF tennis tours. To pass the ITF tests the system needs to have an error of less than 5mm, however today’s Hawk-Eye systems usually operates with an error of less than 3mm.

Over the course of a year roughly 30 per cent of the challenges by players disprove the original call, which can change the outcome of a match in the short term, but potentially influence the success of a player’s career in the long run.

The technology works by tracking every shot of every point using 10 high speed cameras, capturing high-resolution images at 60 frames per second (double the speed of an average TV camera). 5 cameras are placed at each end of a tennis...

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Disputes over line calls used to be one of the main joys of tennis—this, after all, is John McEnroe's game. But fans rarely see players explode in rage anymore. In high-profile matches (i.e., those broadcast on TV), human umpires have largely been replaced by a machine called Hawk-Eye. The system is a kind of computerized ump that stitches together video footage from several high-speed cameras to produce a 3-D simulation of the ball as it approaches and bounces off the ground. Hawk-Eye's decisions are final: When a player challenges an umpire's call, the system displays its view of what just happened, then displays a judgment on the screen— in or out—that the human umpires are compelled to accept.

Hawk-Eye represents one extreme in the growing adoption of technology to solve disputes in sports. On the other side, you've got Major League Baseball, which has long resisted any kind of instant-replay system. Last week, pro baseball played its first games under a new rule that...

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The four tennis governing bodies, the ITF, ATP, WTA Tour and Grand Slam Committee, have agreed to adopt a unified Hawk-Eye challenge system.

Players will be allowed to make three unsuccessful challenges per set at any tournament using Hawk-Eye, plus one more if the set reaches a tie-break.

Since Hawk-Eye technology was introduced tournaments had been allowed to set their own rules for the system.

Next week's Sony Ericsson Open will be the first event to use the new rules.

Previously some tournaments have allowed players to have an unlimited number of challenges in every match, while other events allowed two or three unsuccessful challenges per set.

The governing bodies said players and teams would now be allowed a maximum of three unsuccessful challenges per set plus one more if the set reached a tie-break.

Three of the four Grand Slams use the Hawk-Eye technology. The French Open is the only major not to use the system as the ball...

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MELBOURNE – Giving new dimension to the phrase “catering to the players,” the Australian Open organizers tried something new this year. Usually, players are given meal allowances at tournaments and provided with X dollars to spend at the competitors’ restaurant. At this event, though, players were told they had all-you-can eat privileges. Treat the restaurant like an open bar. Order as much as you want.

It was a well-intentioned touch, yet another reason why the players consistently rate this tournament as their favorite on the circuit. But this policy has been a disaster—so much so, we’re told, that it is already being “reassessed.”

Why? Because players are rational actors and they treat all-you-can-eat the way the rest of us do. They ordering the slow-cooked lamb AND the grilled salmon. They can’t decide between smoothie flavors, so they order both. The sushi’s unlimited? I’ll take one of each. Lines have been intolerably long. The restaurant has run out of some...

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First, Hawk-Eye technology is not available for every court that professional matches are played on. So, in those cases, players can't challenge a call because no Hawk-Eye is available. The chair umpire will inform players before they begin to warm-up if Hawk-Eye will be in use for their match or not.

Second, Hawk-Eye tracks the trajectory of each shot during a match, but it typically takes a little while (up to 10 seconds) for the chair umpire to tell the people in the Hawk-Eye booth to generate the video and show where the ball landed. It typically disrupts the "flow of the match" which is why players only receive 3 challenges per set (and an additional challenge during a tie-break). This also makes it so a player can't abuse the system and ask for Hawk-Eye review after many points.

Lastly - some points just don't require the use of Hawk-Eye technology. Sometimes the ball lands out by several feet and does not land close enough to a line to require a precise...

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You are right that the French Open is the only Grand Slam tournament without Hawkeye,

The reason is that Clay, unlike grass and hardcourts, leaves a mark that players and umpires can check and verify if the ball was in or out.

You can argue that some mistakes can be made but that's quite rare, A hawkeye system is very expensive and the cost/benefit ratio doesn't pays.

Gilbert Ysern, the director general of the French Open and a former umpire, address to this:

“I don't think we need it,” he said in an interview in his office.

“There are ball marks on clay,” Ysern said with a genial smile, “and our chair umpires are used to checking the marks when needed, and, so why would we need Hawk-Eye?”

And the disputes? “It happens very, very rarely that the officials can't find the mark,” he said.

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Well, that is why the chair umpire gets out the chair elevated from the court to go do a ball mark inspection.

The court is swept after each set, so while there are several marks on the court, the court isn't TOO incredibly chewed up at a given time.

We are trained sitting in the chair that on an extremely close ball, to hold the mark for a second in case the player questions it. You can usually sense on a ball that's called out when a player is going to want you to check the mark. Sometimes they make a verbal appeal, sometimes we just go check the mark before being asked if we have reason to believe the call was wrong. But we keep our eyes on the mark.

You would be surprised when you get some experience calling matches on clay that on the baseline and far side line calls, even though you may not have the exact mark from the chair because it's far away, you have an area of about 3 inches and when you get there, the mark is right there and crystal clear. We also...

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Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles). Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court. The object of the game is to play the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will.

Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and at all ages. The sport can be played by anyone who can hold a racket, including wheelchair users. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as "lawn tennis".[1] It had close connections both to various field ("lawn") games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport of real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term "tennis"...

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The problem, though, is that not all ball marks are equal. Lobs create perfectly round spots. Hard serves leave comet-shaped streaks.

Smashes, spins and drops leave variations.

Sometimes there is barely a smudge at all. Sometimes, usually late in a set and near the baseline, the mark cannot be picked from a crowded constellation of blots and footprints. And, hardest of all, sometimes there is only a partial mark near the white line, a phantom left to interpretation.

“Ball-mark inspection is definitely the key point on clay,” said Cedric Mourier, a veteran chair umpire who worked the final last year between Rafael Nadal and Robin Soderling. “A lot of people think clay is easy. When everything goes well, it’s easy. But when it doesn’t, it’s tricky.”

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Mornin', faithful readers. You'll notice the somewhat unusual headline above, which is the first in what I envision as a series of relatively brief, targeted, opinion-driven, daily posts providing commentary on news items as well as general issues and themes in tennis. We all know that tennis isn't exactly racquet science, but then everyone loves to play boy—or girl—genius. I just happen to be lucky enough to do it for a living, under the imprimatur of TENNIS.com. And so, away we go. . .

by Pete Bodo

The United States defeated the Netherlands 2-1 in January 2006 to win the ITF’s Official Mixed Teams Championships, aka the Hopman Cup. The tournament began, as always, on December 30th of the previous year. Here's a trivia question for you: Why will that date live in infamy in the mind of Roger Federer, who didn't even play that event?

Because it marked the first use of the Hawk-Eye Electronic Line-Calling System, or HELCS. (Okay, I made that...

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(CNN)As football continues to tiptoe around increased use of technology, tennis is boldly exploring where seemingly no sport has gone before.

Indeed a tennis event being staged Tuesday, and not the prestigious Miami Open, could well shape the sport for many years to come.

Hawk-Eye has been used at top-tier tournaments for a decade now but Tuesday evening in Salt Lake City the line calling aid will be used on the PowerShares Series solely instead of linespeople.

And one of the four participants in Utah, former Wimbledon finalist Mark Philippoussis, thinks it's a matter of when, not if, tennis at the highest level adopts something similar and does away with linespeople.

"I definitely think it's only a matter of time," Philippoussis told CNN.com. "I see it as a natural progression.

"It's going to happen. Sooner or later someone is going to have to take the leap and say it's going to be now."

The PowerShares Series, a circuit for retired...

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From the mid-1990s onwards, carpet courts were always into the minority — especially after the Stuttgart Eurocard Masters’ carpet was taken off in favour of regular hardcourts in 1997, and in the same year, the Hanover Tour World Championships [YECs] underwent the same surface change.

This happened because the ATP and ITF, the ruling tennis bodies, were phasing out heterogeneous very quick surfaces, like grass and carpet courts, in favour of regular homogeneous hardcourts, which were more conducive to consistent ball-bounces that were easily anticipated by players, and, hence, created the ticket-magnet — longer rallies.

Furthermore, in 2009, to put the finishing touches on the homogenization of the sport that was, for most parts, homogenized on all the 3 surfaces in 2001–02 in a major policy change, the concerned ATP and ITF officials decided that they completely could do away with the outlier called carpet, and keep their utopia a utopia.

They discontinued it...

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